Citations for Evidence-Based Research

Evidence-based research was performed by our partner, CASE Consultants International.  This literature review was aimed at identifying the correlation between weather and environmental exposures and allergy and asthma.  In addition, the research sought to identify specific weather and environmental exposure thresholds that correlate to a higher incidence of symptoms for allergy sufferers or negative health outcomes for asthma patients.  These thresholds form the basis for our calculation of the original DailyBreath Risk Index.  A complete alphabetical bibliography for the evidence-base is listed here.


Andersen, Z.J., Wahlin, P., Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Ketzel, M., Scheike, T., Loft, S. (2008). Size distribution and total number concentration of ultrafine and accumulation mode particles and hospital admissions in children and the elderly in Copenhagen, Denmark. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 65, 458-466.

Andersen, Z.J., Wahlin, P., Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Scheike, T., Loft, S. (2007). Ambient particle source apportionment and daily hospital admissions among children and elderly in Copenhagen. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. 17, 625-636.

Anderson, H.R., Ponce de Leon, A., Bland, J.M., Bower, J.S., Emberlin, J., Strachan, D.P. (1998). Air pollution, pollens, and daily admissions for asthma in London. Thorax. 53, 842-848.

Arbex, M.A.,  Martins, L.C., De Oliveira, R.C., Pereira, L.A., Arbex, F.F., Cancado, J.E., Saldiva, P.H., Braga, A.L. (2007). Air pollution from biomass burning and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation area in Brazil. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 61, 395-400.

Atkinson, R.W., Anderson, H.R., Strachan, D.P., Bland, J.M., Bremner, S.A., Ponce de Leon, A. (1999). Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints. European Respiratory Journal.  13, 257–265.

Atkinson, R.W., Anderson, H.R., Sunyer, J., et al. (2001). Acute effect of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions. Results of APHEA 2 project. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine. 164, 1860–6.

ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). A study of ambient air contaminants and asthma in New York City: Part A and B. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; Public Health Service; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, GA.

Barnett, A.G., Williams, G.M., Schwartz, J., Neller, A.H., Best, T.L., Petroeschevsky, A.L., Simpson, R.W. (2005). Air pollution and child respiratory health: a case-crossover study in Australia and New Zealand. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 171, 1272-1278.

Bates, D.V., Sizto, R. (1987).  Air pollution and hospital admissions in Southern Ontario: the acid summer haze effect. Environmental Research. 43, 317–31.

Bell, M.L., Levy, J.K., Lin, Z. (2008). The effect of sandstorms and air pollution on cause-specific hospital admissions in Taipei, Taiwan. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 6, 104-111.

Breton, M. C., Garneau, M., Fortier, I., Guay, F., Louis, J. (2006) Relationship between climate, pollen concentrations of Ambrosia and medical consultations for allergic rhinitis in Montreal, 1994–2002. Science of The Total Environment. 370, 39-50.

Burr, M.L., Emberlin, J.C., Treu, R., Cheng, S., Pearce, N.E. (2003). Pollen counts in relation to the prevalence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma and atopic eczema. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 33, 1675.

Cakmark, S., Dales, R.E., Burnett, R.T., Judek, S., Coates, F., Brook, J.R. (2002). Effect of airborne allergens on emergency visits by children for conjunctivitis and rhinitis. Lancet. 359, 947–8.

Cashel, P., Newhouse, B.S., Levetin, E. (2004). Correlation of environmental factors with asthma and rhinitis symptoms in Tulsa, OK. Annals of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. 92,356–66.

Chen, Y., Yang, Q., Krewski, D., Shi, Y., Burnett, R,T., McGrail, K. (2004). Influence of relatively low level of particulate air pollution on hospitalization for COPD in elderly people. Inhalation Toxicology.  16, 21-25.

Chew, F.T., Ooi, B.C., Hui, J.K., et al. (1995). Singapore’s haze and acute asthma in children. Lancet. 346,1427.

Chimonas, M.A., Gessner ,B.D.(2007). Airborne particulate matter from primarily geologic, non-industrial sources at levels below National Ambient Air Quality Standards is associated with outpatient visits for asthma and quick-relief medication prescriptions among children less than 20 years old enrolled in Medicaid in Anchorage, Alaska. Environmental Research. 103, 397-404.

Delfino, R., Brummel, S., Wu, J., Stern, H., Ostro, B., Lipsett, M., Winer, A., Street, D., Zhang, L., Tjoa, T. (2009). The relationship of respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions to the southern California wildfires of 2003. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 66, 189. 

De Marco, R., Poli, A., Ferrari, M., Accordini, S., Giammanco, G., Bugiani, M., et al. (2002). The impact of climate and traffic-related NO2 on the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis in Italy. Clinical and Experimental  Allergy. 32, 1405–12.

Desqueyroux, H., Pujet, J-C., Prosper, M., Squinazi, F., Momas, I. (2002). Short-term effects of low-level air pollution on respiratory health of adults suffering from moderate to severe asthma. Environmental Research. 89, 29-37.

Dominici, F., Peng, RD., Bell, ML., Pham, L., McDermott, A., Zeger, S.L., Samet, J. L. (2006). Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. JAMA. 295, 1127-1134.

Duclos, P., Sanderson, L.M., Lipsett, M. (1990). The 1987 forest fire disaster in California: assessment of emergency room visits. Archives of Environmental Health. 45, 53–8.

Ehara, A., Takasaki, H., Takeda, Y., Kida, T.,Mizukami, S., Hagisawa, M., Yamada, Y. (2000). Are high barometric pressure, low humidity and diurnal change of temperature related to the onset of asthmatic symptoms? Pediatrics International. 42 (3), 272-274.

Erbas, B., Kelly, A., Physic, B., Code, C., Edwards, M. (2005). Air pollution and childhood asthma emergency hospital admissions: Estimating intra-city regional variations. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 15, 11-20.

Epton, M.J., Martin, I.R., Graham , P., Healy, P.E., Smith, H., et al. (1997). Climate and aeroallergen levels in asthma: a 12 month prospective study. Thorax. 52, 528–534.

Fann, N., T. Brennan, P. Dolwick, J.L. Gamble, V. Ilacqua, L. Kolb, C.G. Nolte, T.L. Spero, and L. Ziska, 2016: Ch. 3: Air Quality Impacts. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 69–98

Fung, K.Y., Luginaah, I.K.M.G., Webster, G. (2005). Air pollution and daily hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in London, Ontario. International Journal of Environmental Studies. 62, 677-685.

Grineski, S. E., Staniswalis, J. G., Bulathsinhala, P., Peng, Y., Gill, T. E. (2011). Hospital admissions for asthma and acute bronchitis in El Paso, Texas: Do age, sex, and insurance status modify the effects of dust and low wind events? Environmental Research. 111, 1148-1155.   

Grineski, S.E., Staniswalis, J.G., Peng, Y., Atkinson-Palombo, C. (2010). Children’s asthma hospitalizations and relative risk due to nitrogen dioxide (NO2): Effect modification by race, ethnicity and insurance status. Environmental Research. 110, 178–188.

Grundstein, A.,  Ebelt Sarnat, S.,  Klein, M,. Shepherd, M,.  Naeher, L.,  Mote, T., Tolbert, P. (2008) Thunderstorm-associated asthma in Atlanta, Georgia. Thorax, 63, 659–660.

Guo Y, Jiang F, Peng L, Zhang J, Geng F, Xu J, et al. (2012). The association between cold spells and pediatric outpatient visits for asthma in Shanghai, China. PLoS One 7:e42232.

Gyan, K., Henry, W., Lacaille, S., Laloo, A., Ebanks, C.L., McKay, S., Antoine, R.M., Monteil, M.A. (2005). African dust clouds are associated with increased paediatric asthma accident and emergency admissions on the Caribben island of Trinidad. International Journal of Biometeorology. 49, 371–376.

Hajat, S., Haines, A., Atkinson, R.W., Bremner, S.A., Anderson, H.R., Emberlin, J. (2001). Association between air pollution and daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis in London, United Kingdom. American Journal of Epidemiology. 153, 704-714.

Halonen, J.I., Lanki, T., Yli-Tuomi, T., Kulmala, M., Tiittanen, P., Pekkanen, J. (2008). Urban air pollution, and asthma and COPD hospital emergency room visits. Thorax. 63, 635-641.

Hashimoto, M., Fukuda, T., Shimizu, T., Watanabe, S., Watanuki, S., Eto, Y.,  Urashima, M. (2004). Influence of climate factors on emergency visits for childhood asthma attack. Pediatrics International. 46, 48-52.

Hayes, J., Jhaveri, M. A., Mannino, D. M., Strawbridge, H., Temprano, J.  (2013).  The effect of mold sensitization and humidity upon allergenic asthma.  Clinical Respiratory Journal, 7(2), 135-144.

Henderson, S. B., Brauer, M., Macnab, Y.C.,Kennedy, S.M. (2011). Three measures of forest fire smoke exposure and their associations with respiratory and cardiovascular health outcomes in a population-based cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119, 1266-1271.

Hirshon, .JM., Shardell, M., Alles, S., Powell, J.L., Squibb, K., Ondov, J., Blaisdell, C.J. (2008). Elevated ambient air zinc increases pediatric asthma morbidity. Environmental Health Perspectives. 116, 826-831.

Ho, W-C, Hartley, W.R., Myers, L., Lin, M-H, Lin, Y-S, Lien, C-H, Lin, R-S. (2007). Air pollution, weather, and associated risk factors related to asthma prevalence and attack rate. Environmental Research. 104, 402–409.

Holmen, A., Blomqvist, J., Frindberg, H., Johnelius, Y., Eriksson, N.E., Henricson, K.A., Herrstrom, P., Hogstedt, B. (1997). Frequency of patients with acute asthma in relation to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, other pollutants of ambient air and meteorological observations. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 69, 317–322.

Holz, O., Mucke, M., Paasch, K., Bohme, S., Timm, P., Richter, K., et al. (2002). Repeated ozone exposures enhance bronchial allergen responses in subjects with rhinitis or asthma. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 32, 681–689.

Hwang, B.F., Jaakkola, J.J.K., Lee, Y.L., Lin, Y.C., Leon Guo, Y. (2006). Relation between air pollution and allergic rhinitis in Taiwanese schoolchildren. Respiratory Research.  7, 23.

Ito, K., Weinberger, K., Robinson, G., Sheffield, P., Lall, R., Mathes, R., Ross, Z., Kinney, P., Matte, T. (2015). The associations between daily spring pollen counts, over-the-counter allergy medication sales, and asthma syndrome emergency department visits in New York City, 2002–2012. Environmental Health, 14:71.

Jaffe, D.H., Singer, M.E., Rimm, A.A. (2003). Air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma among Ohio Medicaid recipients, 1991-1996. Environmental Research. 91, 21-28.

Janssen, N.A., Brunekreef, B., van Vliet, P., Aarts, F., Meliefste, K., Harssema, H., Fischer, P. (2003). The Relationship between Air Pollution from Heavy Traffic and Allergic Sensitization, Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness, and Respiratory Symptoms in Dutch Schoolchildren. Environmental Health Perspectives. 111, 1512-8.

Johnston, F.H., Kavanagh, A.M., Bowman, D., et al. (2002). Exposure to bushfire smoke and asthma: an ecological study. The Medical Journal of Australia. 176, 536–8.

Jörres, R., Nowak, D., Magnussen, H. (1996). The effect of ozone exposure on allergen responsiveness in subjects with asthma or rhinitis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 153, 56–64.

Kanatani, K., Isao, I., Wael, A-D, Yuichi, A., Mathews, W.C., Ramsdell, J.W. (2010). Desert Dust Exposure Is Associated with Increased Risk of Asthma Hospitalizations in Children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 182, 1475–1482.

Kashiwabara, K., Itonaga, K., Moroi, T. (2003). Airborne water droplets in mist or fog may affect nocturnal attacks in asthmatic children. Journal of Asthma. 40, 405–411.

Kashiwabara, K., Kohrogi, H., Ota, K., & Moroi, T. (2002).  High frequency of emergency room visits of asthmatic children on misty or foggy nights. Journal of Asthma, 39(8), 711.

Lavigne, E., Villeneuve, P., Cakmak,S. (2012). Air Pollution and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma in Windsor, Canada. Journal of Public Health. 103, 4-8.

Lee, E.C., Leem, J., Hong, Y.C., Kim, H., Kim, H.C.(2008). Effects of Asian Dust Storm Events on Daily Admissions for Asthma and Stroke in Seven Metropolitans of Korea. Epidemiology. 19, 145.

Lee, Y.L., Shaw, C.K., Su, H.J., Lai, J.S., Ko, Y.C., Huang, S.L., Sung, F.C., Guo, Y.L. (2003).

Climate, traffic-related air pollutants and allergic rhinitis prevalence in middle-school children in Taiwan. European Respiratory Journal. 21, 964-970.

Lewis, S.A., Corden, J.M., Forster, G.E., Newlands, M. (2000). Combined effects or aerobiological pollutants, chemical pollutants and meteorological conditions on asthma admissions and A–E attendances in Derbyshire UK, 1993–96. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 30, 1724–32.

Lin, M., Chen, Y., Burnett, R.T., Villeneuve, P., Krewski, D. (2003). Effect of short-term exposure to gaseous pollution on asthma hospitalization in children: a bi-directional case-crossover analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 57, 50–55. 

Lin, M., Chen, Y., Burnett, R.T., Villeneuve, P.J., Krewski, D. (2002). The influence of ambient coarse particulate matter on asthma hospitalization in children: case-crossover and time-series analyses. Environmental Health Perspectives. 110, 575-581.

Lin, S., Liu, X., Le, H., Hwang, S.A. (2008). Chronic exposure to ambient ozone and asthma hospital admissions among children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 116, 1725-1730.

Lin, S., Luo, M., Walker, R.J., Liu, X., Hwang, S., Chinery, R. (2009). Extreme high temperatures and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiology. 20, 738-746.

Lipsett, M., Hurley, S., Ostro, B. (1997). Air pollution and emergency room visits for asthma in Santa Clara county, California. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105,216–222.

Medina-Ramon, M., Zanobetti, A., Schwartz, J.  (2006). The effects of ozone and PM10 on hospital admissions for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; a national multicity study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 163, 579-588.

Migliaretti, G., Cadum, E., Migliore, E., Cavallo, F. (2005). Traffic air pollution and hospital admission for asthma: a casecontrol approach in a Turin (Italy) population. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 78, 164-169.

Migliaretti, G., Cavallo, F. (2004). Urban air pollution and asthma in children. Pediatric Pulmonology. 38, 198-203.

Mireku, N., Wang, Y., Ager, J., Reddy, R.C., Baptist, A.P. (2009). Changes in weather and the effects on pediatric asthma exacerbations. Annals of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. 103, 220–224.

Mohr, L.B., Luo, S., Mathias, E., Tobing, R., Homan, S., Sterling, D. (2008). Influence of season and temperature on the relationship of elemental carbon air pollution to pediatric asthma emergency room visits. Journal of Asthma. 45, 936-943.

Monteiro A, Carvalho V, Góis J, Sousa C. (2012). Use of “Cold Spell” indices to quantify excess chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity during winter (November to March 2000–2007): case study in Porto. International Journal of Biometeorology. 57:857–780.

Mortimer, K.M., Neas, L.M., Dockery, D.W., Redline, S., Tager, I.B. (2002). The effect of air pollution on inner-city children with asthma. European Respiratory Journal. 19, 699–705.

Nastos, P.T., Paliatsos, A.G., Papadopoulos, M., Bakoula, C., Priftis, K.N. (2008). The effect of weather variability on pediatric asthma admissions in Athens, Greece. The Journal of Asthma. 45, 59–65.

Nastos, P.T., Paliatsos, A.G., Priftis, K.N., Kaldellis, J.K., Panagiotopoulou-Gartagani, P., Tapratzi-Potamianou, P., Zachariadi-Xypolita, A., Kotsonis, K., Kassiou, K., Saxoni-Papageorgiou, P. (2006). The effect of weather types on the frequency of childhood asthma admissions in Athens, Greece. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 15, 936–942.

Norris, G., Larson, T., Koenig, J., Claiborn, C., Sheppard, L., Finn, D. (2000). Asthma aggravation, combustion, and stagnant air. Thorax. 55, 466–470.

Norris, G., YoungPong, S.N., Koenig, J.Q., et al. (1999). An association between fine particles and asthma emergency department visit for children in Seattle. Environmental Health Perspectives. 107, 389–93.

Oftedal, B., Brunekreef, B., Nystad, W., Nafstad, P. ( 2007). Residential outdoor air pollution and allergen sensitization in school-children in Oslo Norway. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 37, 1632–1640.

Ostro, B., Roth, L., Malig, B., Marty, M. (2009). The effects of fine particle components on respiratory hospital admissions in children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 117, 475–480.

Parker, J.D., Akinbami, L.J., Woodruff, T.J. (2009). Air pollution and childhood respiratory allergies in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives.  117, 140-147.

Peel, J.L., Tolbert, P.E., Klein, M., Metzger, K.B., Flanders, W.D., Knox, T., Mulholland, J.A., Ryan, P.B., Frumkin, H. (2005). Ambient air pollution and respiratory emergency department visits. Epidemiology. 16, 164-174.

Pénard-Morand, C., Charpin, D., Raherison, C., Kopferschmitt, C., Caillaud, D., Lavaud, F., et al. (2005). Long-term exposure to background air pollution related to respiratory and allergic health in schoolchildren. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 35, 1279–1287.

Pope, C.A. III. (1991). Respiratory hospital admissions with PM10 pollution in Utah, Salt Lake and Cache Valleys. Archives of Environmental Health. 46, 90–7.

Priftis, K.N., Paliatsos, A.G., Panagiotopoulou-Gartagani, P., Tapratzi-Potamianou, P., Zachariadi-Xypolita, A., et al. (2006). Association of weather conditions with childhood admissions for wheezy bronchitis or asthma in Athens. Respiration. 73, 783–790.

Qiu, H., Yu, I. T., Wang, X., Tian, L., Tse, L. A., &; Wong, T. W. (2013). Season and humidity dependence of the effects of air pollution on COPD hospitalizations in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment, 76, 74-80.

Rosas, I., McCartney, H., Payne, R., Caldero, C., Lacey, J., et al. (1998). Analysis of the relationships between environmental factors (aeroallergens, air pollution, and weather) and asthma emergency admissions to a hospital in Mexico City. Allergy. 53, 394–401.

Rappold, A., Cascio, W., Kilaru, V., Stone, S., Neas, L., Devlin, R., Diaz-Sanchez, D. (2012) Cardio-respiratory outcomes associated with exposure to wildfire smoke are modified by measures of community health. Environmental Health. 11, 71.

Rossi, O.V., Kinnula, V.L., Tienari, J., Huhti, E. (1993). Association of severe asthma attacks with weather, pollen, and air pollutants. Thorax. 48, 244–248.

Schwartz, J., Slater, D., Larson, T.V., Pierson, W.E., Koenig, J.Q. (1993). Particulate air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for asthma in Seattle. American Review of Respiratory Disease. 147, 826-31.

Sheppard, L., Levy, D., Norris, G., Larson, T.V., Koenig, J.Q. (2003). Effects of ambient air pollution and nonelderly asthma hospital admissions in Seattle, Washington, 1987-1994. Epidemiology. 10, 23-30.

Sheppard, L., Levy, D., Norris, G., et al. (1999). Effects of ambient air pollution on non-ederly asthma hospital admissions in Seattle, 1987–1994. Epidemiology.10, 23–30.

Slaughter, J.C., Kim, E., Sheppard, L., Sullivan, J.H., Larson, T.V., Claiborn, C. (2005). Association between particulate matter and emergency room visits, hospital admissions and mortality in Spokane, Washington. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology. 15, 153-159.

Soneja, S., Jiang, C., Fisher, J., Upperman, C. R., Mitchell, C., & Sapkota, A. (2016). Exposure to extreme heat and precipitation events associated with increased risk of hospitalization for asthma in Maryland, U.S.A. Environmental Health. 15(1).

Strickland, M.J., Darrow, L.A., Klein. M., Flanders, W.D., Sarnat, J.A., Waller, L.A., et al. (2010). Short-term associations between ambient air pollutants and pediatric asthma emergency department visits. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine . 182, 307–316.

Szyszkowicz, M. (2008). Ambient air pollution and daily emergency department visits for asthma in Edmonton, Canada. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 21, 25–30.

Tecer, L.H., Alagha, O., Karaca, F., Tuncel, G., Eldes, N. (2008). Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10-2.5, and PM10) and children’s hospital admissions for asthma and respiratory diseases: A bidirectional case- crossover study. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 71, 512–520.

Tseng C-M, Chen Y-T, Ou S-M, Hsiao Y-H, Li S-Y, Wang S-J, et al. (2013). The Effect of Cold Temperature on Increased Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Nationwide Study. PLoS ONE. 8(3): e57066.

Tseng, R.Y., Li, C.K., Spinks, J.A. (1992). Particulate air pollution and hospitalization for asthma. Annals of Allergy. 68, 425-32.

Ueda, K., Nitta, H., Odajima, H. (2010). The effects of weather, air pollutants, and Asian dust on hospitalization for asthma in Fukuoka. Environmental Health and Preventative Medicine. 15, 350–357.

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Walters, S., Griffiths, R., Ayres, J. (1994). Temporal association between hospital admissions for asthma in Birmingham and ambient levels of sulphur dioxide and smoke. Thorax.  49, 133–140. 

Yamazaki, S., Shima, M., Ando, M., Nitta, H. (2009). Modifying Effect of Age on the Association between Ambient Ozone and Nighttime Primary Care Visits Due to Asthma Attack. Journal of Epidemiology. 19, 143–151.

Yüksel, H., Tanac, R., Tez, E., Demir, E., Çoker, M. (1996). Childhood asthma and atmospheric conditions. Pediatrics International. 38, 606–610.

Zhong, W., Levin, L., Reponen, T., Hershey, G.K., Adhikari, A., Shukla, R., LeMasters, G. (2006). Analysis of short-term influences of ambient aeroallergens on pediatric asthma hospital visits. Science of The Total Environment. 370, 330-336.